Category: Prostate cancer

Chemotherapy in the management of prostate cancer

22 April, 2015 (13:59) | Prostate cancer | By: Health news

Despite this interpretation of the early experience, another generation has passed since the NPCP trials were initiated, without cytotoxic therapy earning a place in the routine management of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Recent modification of chemotherapy and the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing that permits efficient assessment of ‘response’ have changed this perception.

It is instructive to consider some of the factors contributing to this perception. First, evaluation of clinical response has been difficult. Second, the fact that even patients with disseminated prostate cancer are commonly managed exclusively by urologists has attenuated the experience of medical oncologists in this disease, and very likely has contributed to the slow development of cytotoxic paradigms. Third, there has been an ironic distraction produced by the advent of medical testicular suppression. For some time, clinical research in advanced prostate cancer has seen disproportionate resources expended on randomizing many thousands of patients to variants of hormonal therapies.

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More than a decade of such experience has demonstrated that no matter how complex or expensive we make androgen deprivation, its therapeutic impact is still limited. Finally, the palliative impact of cytotoxic drugs is underappreciated. As pointed out by Slack and Murphy in the quotation above, cytotoxic therapy carefully applied can often provide symptom relief with less morbidity than that associated with narcotics or other palliative

Progress towards more routine assessment of the role of chemotherapy has been made because of a number of factors that have been addressed:

(1) Establishment of standardized response criteria;
(2) Closer ties between medical oncologists and urologists in ‘academic centers of
(3) Recognition of the toxicity and therapeutic limitations of androgen ablation;
(4) Inclusion of quality-of-life end-points in clinical research.

Finasteride’s Effect on Prostate Cancer. Part 2

20 June, 2011 (15:04) | Prostate cancer | By: Health news

A major limitation of this sero-epidemiological study is based on the fact that fatal prostate cancer takes many years from formation until death occurs. The question is whether the fatty acid content of a man’s blood on two days out of the thousands of days over those years is a reliable measure of his average fatty acid status. Another limitation is that the researchers did not take into account the impact of vitamin E, selenium, lycopene, cruciferous vegetables, meat and dairy intake.

EPA and DHA are hypothesized to reduce cancer risk in general through their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and by affected cell permeability, gene expression, and signal transduction. The effects of omega-3s on these pathways in prostate carcinogenesis are not fully understood. There is no known mechanism by which EPA or DHA would be procarcinogenic, nor is there any evidence suggesting anticancer properties of trans-fats.

Genetic and molecular studies of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia have indicated that loss of heterozygosity is prominent and that certain oncogenes are expressed. What causes the expression of these oncogenes? What downregulates their expression?
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Androgenic hormones are necessary for prostate growth and development. It is not surprising that polymorphic variants of genes involved in androgen action may affect PCa risk. African Americans, who have higher PCa risks than Asians, have androgen-receptor polymorphisms that result in their increased predisposition. 5-alpha reductase variants also may respond differently to inhibition by finasteride.

The key lifestyle factor in the United States most likely responsible for high PCa incidence is the diet, generally rich in animal fats and meats and poor in fruits and vegetables.

Accumulated epidemiologic evidence implicates the environment as the major contributor to the development of most prostate cancers. PCa incidence has wide geographic variation, with high rates in the US and Western Europe and low rates in Asia. African Americans have very high PCa risks. The geographic variation can be explained best by lifestyle, as Asian immigrants to North America have higher PCa risks. The key lifestyle factor in the United States most likely responsible for high PCa incidence is the diet, generally rich in animal fats and meats and poor in fruits and vegetables. Total fat intake, animal fat intake, and consumption of red meats are associated with increased PCa risk.3 Ingestion of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazopyridine, one of the hererocyclic amine carcinogens that appear in “well-done” red meats, leads to PCa in rats. Consumption of dairy products also increases PCa risk.

Consumption of lycopene, cruciferous vegetables, vitamin E and selenium reduce PCa risk.
The role of genetics in identifying individuals at high risk for prostate cancer are in their infancy, but epidemiologic studies support the concept that genetic risk plays a role, and clinical studies support the observation that early prostate cancer in some individuals is highly aggressive, while in the majority it is indolent. Linking these two factors should identify a population of men in whom screening, early detection, and chemoprevention agents can be intensively directed. In the meantime, the take-home message of this study was expressed by the chief author: “Overall, the beneficial effects of eating fish to prevent heart disease outweigh any harm related to prostate cancer risk.”

Finasteride’s Effect on Prostate Cancer

18 June, 2011 (21:57) | Prostate cancer | By: Health news

A 7-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that tested whether the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, reduces prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Over the course of the study, men underwent annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) testing. Men who had an abnormal DRE or PSA>/= 4.0 ng/mL were recommended for prostate biopsy. At the end of the study, all men who had not been diagnosed with PCa were requested to undergo a prostate biopsy.

A case-control study was nested within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Serum phospholipid levels were compared from 1,809 men with biopsy-confirmed invasive prostate cancer and 1,809 men (controls) who were disease-free at the end-of-study biopsy. Controls were frequency matched to cases on distributions of age (+/- 5 years), treatment group (finasteride/placebo), and a first-degree relative with PCa, and they were oversampled for nonwhites.

18,882 men age 55 or older were randomized to receive finasteride or placebo.

Study Medication
Subjects received finasteride 5 mg/day.

Outcome Measures
Serum samples were collected at years 1 and 4 and pooled to reduce intraindividual variability of the phospholipid fatty acid assay. Calculations were made of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docsahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a measure of total long chain omega02 fatty acids; linoleic + arachidonic acids as a measure of total omega-6 fatty acids; total trans-fatty acids (TFA) 18:1; total TFA 16; and total TFA 18:2.

The primary outcome measure was the distribution of serum phospholipid fatty acids by percent of total among PCa cases and controls, stratified by prostate cancer grade.

Key Findings
Levels of DHA were higher among high-grade cases compared with controls. Levels of TFA 18:1 and 18:2 were significantly lower among high-grade cases compared with controls. There were no other significant differences of the remaining phospholipids between control and cancer groups. EPA was not associated with risk of high-grade PCa, and associations were similar for EPA+DHA to that of DHA alone.

Practice Implications
Epidemiologic, animal model, and in vitro studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, and selenium are chemopreventive for PCa. The findings of this study run counter to what the investigators hypothesized, which was that omega-6 and TFAs would be positively and omega-3 fatty acids inversely associated with PCa risk. Although unexpected, the authors cite several other studies that are consistent with their results, and the possibility exists that there may be an inverse association of fish consumption with late stage or fatal prostate cancer. It is important to keep in mind, however, that it was only DHA, and only high-grade prostate cancer, where an increased risk of PCa risk was found. Replication in more studies is needed before any conclusive recommendations can be made.

Resveratrol and Prostate Cancer

15 April, 2010 (04:41) | Prostate cancer | By: Health news

When early studies showed that resveratrol and prostate cancer cures were linked, many people were skeptical. However, further studies now back this up which is extremely good news, especially for men.

Part of the problem is that this powerful antioxidant substance has been over-hyped in the media and as a result lost much of its credibility, which is a shame as it is very important to our health.

Researchers at the University of Alabama in Birmingham have announced the results of a study in which mice that were fed antioxidant were 87% less likely to develop the most deadly form of prostate cancer compared with mice not fed with it, showing how beneficial the resveratrol and prostate cancer connection is.

Another study also shows that a daily supplement of resveratrol can protect against prostate cancer in men, and that’s according to the researchers at Houston’s MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Resveratrol has already been proven to be a powerful antioxidant that can keep your heart healthy and balance your cholesterol and well as potentially increasing your lifespan.

With prostate cancer it has been shown to be effective in all the three main stages – initiation, promotion and progression, which is quite an achievement for a natural substance.

Despite the fact that more research is needed, it is clear that this unique substance primarily found in the skin of red grapes and the Japanese knotweed plant is very beneficial for prostate cancer and overall health.

With more and more men being diagnosed with this type of cancer, resveratrol is a good way of helping to prevent it occurring and health experts agree that a quality supplement is the best way as you can control the purity and amount you take.

It is best to take a supplement with other nutrients for increased absorption and effectiveness in which case 20mg a day of the best type – trans-resveratrol is optimal.

Just ensure they have an enteric coating otherwise much of the benefits will be lost to the stomach acid.

With more research ongoing, resveratrol has many secrets to reveal to us still but as we already know so much, why not make a point of incorporating it into your daily routine and help to keep yourself healthy and potentially ward off prostate cancer.

If you would like to learn more about the nutritional supplements I personally take that contain resveratrol, visit my website below.

Treatments For Prostate Cancer

26 March, 2010 (23:25) | Prostate cancer | By: Health news

The treatment had made use of radiation therapy since 1915. During those times the results have not been very acceptable because the radiation rays did not infiltrate deeply in irradiating the cancer cells and instead to skin tumor and morbidity. However, in 1980 equipments such as linear accelerators were utilized by oncologists. These helped to get to targeted areas better and added the pace of the elevated energy elements being delivered.

There are three types of radiation which rely on the kind of high energy elements being delivered in the treatment of cancer. – 3D-CRT (3 Dimentional Conformal Radiation Therapy) – uses subatomic electrons on aiming elevated energy particles/waves some photon radiation – Neutron Beam Therapy which uses neutrons – Proton Beam Therapy which uses protons

Fractionated radiation cure for cancer

This external ray radiation is delivering little doses of radiation to targeted part of the patient’s body over 9 weeks or more, relying on the case. The normal and healthy prostate cells can recover easily from these little doses rays while the tumor cells can not recover.

Patients with tumor in the prostate who want to be treated through external radiation therapy must have the following: 6 or lower Gleason score; 10 or lower PSA scale; Contained or localized tumor in prostate gland; No abdominal mark tissue because of previous surgical operation.

PSA scale of ten or lower and Gleason score of six or lesser means that tumor is enclosed in the prostate gland itself and was not able to scatter in the tissues or organs around. Medication for prostate tumor such as IMRT and 3D-CRT are good because they destruct the tumor in the prostate gland while the organs and tissues surrounding it are unaffected and unattached. If the tumor had spread already then the danger is greater in the surrounding area.

When the patients have scar tissues in the abdominal region because of surgical operations done earlier, the intestines and colon will be open to extra radiation. All patients who have undergone radiation cure for prostate cancer cannot be given again.

Salvage medication for prostate cancer.

This kind of cure involves brachytherapy. However, radiotherapy is not recommended as salvage treatment for cancer of the prostate if brachytherapy is not successful because prostate gland was treated already of elevated doses of radiation. Radiotherapy is given to patients with benign hyperplasia of the prostate. Cryotherapy is also a cure for tumor of the prostate that is suggested as salvage treatment when radiotherapy is not successful. Cryotherapy involves the chilling of the tumor cells from the prostate gland to destroy them.

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

2 March, 2010 (15:09) | Prostate cancer | By: Health news

So you have just being diagnosed with prostate cancer and you think it’s the end for you? If yes, you are absolutely wrong. It might have been the end for you several years ago, but not today when so many people are now surviving the condition all over the world. This article explains why prostate cancer is no longer a killer disease and reveals what you can do to ensure you are among the many survivors of the condition.

You see, the major reason lots of people died from this condition in the past had to do with the fact that medical science hadn’t advanced as far as it has today. Apart from the treatment, even diagnosis was not as easy in the past as it is nowadays. Today, with the many highly effective ways of testing for and treating prostate cancer, there are now lots more survivors than was the case several years ago.

Instead of thinking your world has come to an end because of this condition, you should be positive and committed to finding a solution. Talk to your doctors for the best treatment option available to you. Don’t rush into going for surgery until and unless that’s the best and most effective solution available to you. Also, it’s important for you to do your own research into the different treatments available so that you can have a firmer understanding of what is best for you or not.

In all, you should be strong willed and determined to survive the condition, despite your diagnosis. I have heard that some people who have died from the condition died not just because of the cancerous tumors but because they had lost all hopes deep within them. You see, I believe strongly that no matter how powerful any drug or treatment is for cancer, if you don’t have the confidence and commitment to survive, it won’t help.

As you have seen from this article, diagnosis of prostate cancer or even any other cancer for that matter doesn’t translate to an automatic death sentence. Lots of people have survived and continue to survive cancer. If such people can survive, you can as well.

Prevent Prostate Cancer

19 January, 2010 (18:38) | Prostate cancer | By: admin

Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the prostate. This cancer type only affects men and it is the most common cancer in older men. Although it is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die of it. Cancer is mostly a very slow growing disease and usually people are unable to feel its presence in early ages. This disease is curable if detected early before it has spread to other organs of the body. As the age grows, risk of prostate increases.

Mostly men having age of 65 or more suffer from this disease. But in Asian countries its greater ratio is in men having age of 50 or more. This cancer type can be very serious and life threatening if it is large, advanced, or appears at a younger age.

There are usually no specific symptoms of prostate cancer during the early stages. Most men at this stage do not observe any symptom at all. When symptoms do exist, they may be excessive urination, hard to start urinating, painful urinating, blood in the urine, leg weakness, etc. No one knows exactly the reason but cancer is very common in African-American and Latino men especially those who eat a high-fat diet. Native American and Asian men have the lowest chances of getting prostate cancer.

There is no sure way to avoid this cancer type. However, regular exercise and having a low-fat diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish can reduce the risk of this disease. The digital rectal exams and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test may be used to screen men who do not have any symptoms of prostate cancer. However, many experts are uncertain whether routine digital rectal exams or PSA tests are appropriate for all men.

The treatment of prostate cancer is different for each individual. You should work together with your health care professional to ensure the long-term benefit from treatment. You should have knowledge about all possible treatment so that you and your doctor can pick the option best suited to you. Your age, family history, ethnic background, weight, overall health and other medical situation, and the characteristics of the disease are all important factors to consider in making treatment decisions.

  • When to Call a Health Professional
  1. If you have symptoms like excessive urination, hard to start urinating, painful urinating, blood in the urine, leg weakness, etc.
  2. If you feel severe bone pain.

Prostate Cancer Prevention – 5 Essential Tips to Reduce Your Risk

11 November, 2009 (04:55) | Prostate cancer | By: admin

Prostate cancer prevention services have despite increased awareness, always struggled with the reluctance of men to talk about their health and to seek help. However, there is much that can be done and the following 5 tips can help to reduce your risk.

  • Accept Prostate Screening.

Prostate Screening has admittedly suffered from a muted response in the UK, However, recent research published in the New England Journal of Medicine which examined the potential impact of Prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening programme has led to calls from the Prostate Cancer Charity to establish a UK National screening Committee. A major reason for this is sheer numbers – prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the UK – over 35,000 men are affected every year.

  • Ease off on the High Fat Foods

Research carried out by the Mayo Clinic in the US, has suggested that a diet high in saturated fats – an example being the animal fats found in red meat, may result in a higher possibility of prostate cancer.

  • Hit the Fruit & Vegetables

A link has been found between those diets high in fruits and vegetables and a lowering of various kinds of cancer

  • Favour Fish

It is advisable to maintain a regular intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This good fat, which can be found in certain cold water fish such as salmon, herring and mackerel, seems to lower the odds of getting a range of cancers.

  • Enjoy the sunshine

Used sensibly, catching the sun can be of immense benefit. Research into men living in the sunniest states in the US, found a 32% lower prostate cancer risk. The explanation appears to lie in Vitamin D, which we obtain from the sun. If worried about possible side effects to your skin get your Vitamin D from Cod Liver oil instead.

Treatment For Prostate Cancer With Omega 3 Fish Oil Supplements

25 October, 2009 (16:46) | Prostate cancer | By: admin

Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer amongst men in the USA. The most common being lung cancer. Over twenty seven thousand men are estimated to die from cancer of the prostate annually.

The good news is that research has shown that a diet which has a high Omega 3 fatty acid content can reduce the potential for getting prostate cancer and reduce the effects of cancer of the prostate. The research focused on the amount of oily or fatty fish in the diet of the men studied. The conclusion of the studies was that men who ate more fatty fish were less likely to be affected by prostate cancer. It was also concluded that where cancer of the prostate was diagnosed the growth rate of the prostate tumor could be reduced by increasing the amount of Omega 3 fats in the diet.

Diet is all important when it comes to preventing or treating prostate cancer. Increasing the amount of Omega 3 fats in the diet can reduce the risk of death by cancer of the prostate and allow a man diagnosed with prostate cancer to live with the tumor to a normal life span.

Omega 3 fatty acids are known as essential fatty acids because they are required for healthy body functioning. However they must be provided in the diet because the human body cannot manufacture them itself. Cold water oily fish are the most common source of Omega 3 fats. These include fish such as sardines, tuna and salmon which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

It is important to balance the ratio of Omega 3 fatty acids against Omega 6 fatty acids. This ratio should be as near to one to one as possible. The diet of most western men is in excess of twenty to one as a result of the large amount of meat and low amount of fish eaten. This is one of the important factors affecting the statistics for prostate cancer and cancer of the prostate deaths in western and eastern men. Western men being more likely to be affected by prostate cancer and die of this disease.

Genetics also plays an important role in the tendency to develop cancer of the prostate. Men with a variant of the COX-2 gene are known to have a higher likelihood of developing cancer of the prostate than other men. This variant of the COX-2 gene is passed from generation to generation among men. This susceptibility to cancer of the prostate caused by genetics can be positively affected by diet. An improved diet can have a positive outcome for these men.

By increasing the amount of Omega 3 fatty acids in the diet the genetic cancer risk can be reduced. Men with the COX-2 variant can change their prostate outlook by changing their diet. They have a choice of eating more fatty fish or adding an Omega 3 fish oil supplement to their diet.

Men prone to prostate cancer would be those who benefit most by changing or improving their diet by increasing their consumption of Omega 3 fatty acids. However all men should consider the importance of Omega 3 fats in their diet.

Men over the age of sixty are also more likely to develop cancer of the prostate and should consider dietary changes.

Changing their diet to increase the amount of Omega 3 fatty acids can prevent the development of prostate tumors and has been shown to slow the development of existing prostate tumors. Men diagnosed with prostate tumors have been able to control the further growth of the tumor and live out a normal life span.

Fatty fish or Omega 3 fish oil supplements can be used to increase the Omega 3 fats in the diet and thus have a positive benefit for the prostate.

Omega 3 fish oil supplements are rich in the required Omega 3 fatty acids and are an excellent alternative to fish. Produced from raw fish oil using a process called molecular distillation Omega 3 fish oil capsules are not only rich in the essential Omega 3 fatty acids but also free of the contaminants such as mercury and heavy metals that are often present in fish.

Omega 3 fish oil capsules are concentrated, pure and an easy to take alternative for fish.

Take action today to prevent or reduce your risk from prostate cancer by increasing your daily intake of Omega 3 fats. Use an Omega 3 fish oil supplement to boost your bodies ability to fight this deadly cancer and live a longer happier life.

What is ucla proton prostate cancer treatment?

5 October, 2009 (12:21) | Prostate cancer | By: Health news

What is ucla proton prostate cancer treatment?
we’ll talk about this prostate cancer treatment as belows,which is a very pupular,we need to know more about it.

Traditional radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy-based treatment are X-ray radiation to send ionizing radiation.

In addition to the x-line, the electrons, protons and neutrons and other particles such as atoms can also be used for radiotherapy. Proton-line external beam radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a form of it, rather than using a proton x ray transfer ionizing radiation.

Proton line can be set to achieve a particular depth of the organization, as well to achieve this pre-set depth, the ionization level increased rapidly, Line by adjusting the proton energy, the ionization energy can be enveloping the entire tumor volume, resulting in tumor cell DNA damage, while maximizing protection of the surrounding normal tissues.

This is also the advantages of proton line, which could be better carried out three-dimensional tumor proper type with adjusting the proton linear energy.

In addition, the proton line differs from traditional radiation, so that normal cells have the ability damaged white line repair, and tumor cells succumbed to irreversible damage beyond repair.

Currently used proton line treatment for , with few clinical reports in the United States, only a few centers is carrying out this project.

Preliminary results indicate that without recurrence rate of PEA is average 80.2%. Foci within the prostate smaller, the greater the probability of exposure, the greater the likelihood of a cure. Proton-line treatment for long-term effect remains to be seen.