Synthesis of Fetal Myocardial Protein Isoforms in the Overloaded Heart

10 November, 2011 (22:12) | Heart Diseases | By: Health news

Adult myocardial cells respond to overload by accelerating protein synthesis, although at the same time they preferentially synthesize fetal isoforms of several proteins. Abnormal actin and tropomyosin, also synthesized by the overloaded heart, represent isoforms of the proteins that were predominant earlier in development, during fetal life.

This reversion to fetal isoforms may be related to the fact that the adult myocardium is a terminally differentiated tissue that, like mature peripheral-blood granulocytes, cannot divide and that normally synthesizes new protein at only a very slow rate. Unlike the granulocyte, which does not enlarge but is readily replenished by the proliferation and maturation of undifferentiated stem cells in the bone marrow, the adult heart can initiate rapid protein synthesis and so undergo hypertrophy. Thus, for adult myocardial cells to regain the capacity for rapid protein synthesis that they had during development, the pattern of protein synthesis may have to revert to that seen earlier in ontogeny. It is of interest, however, that the hypertrophy induced by hyperthyroidism does not increase the expression of fetal isoforms of myocardial proteins.

The functional consequences of the appearance of primitive isoforms of myocardial proteins in the overloaded heart are poorly understood. It is tempting to postulate that these changes may contribute to the cardiomyopathy of overload, but such speculation must await additional evidence.
Singulair online pharmacy
Heterogeneity of Protein Isoforms Synthesized in Response to Overload

It is now evident that the synthesis of new proteins in the overloaded heart is not due simply to the overall stimulation of muscle growth. Instead, the control of protein synthesis is complex, and the rates at which altered isoforms of several myofibrillar proteins appear are dissimilar. For example, new myosin and actin isoforms appear at different times during the initial response to overload. This complexity is highlighted by the recent finding that the localization of newly synthesized isoforms of myosin and actin in the overloaded rat heart also differs. New β-myosin heavy chains appear first in the subendocardial regions of the left ventricle and around blood vessels, whereas the fetal isoform of actin appears more uniformly throughout the myocardium. The heterogeneity in the appearance of the β-myosin may reflect the higher tension in the subendocardium and around blood vessels or, possibly, a local response to growth factors released by endothelial and endocardial cells.

Isoform changes in the hypertrophied heart have also been reported for lactate dehydrogenase,78 creatine kinase,79 , 80 and the sarcolemmal sodium pump.